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Statement Assumption

statement and assumption concept

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Statement and Assumption Quizzes

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Statements and Assumptions

In Statements and Assumptions questions, given a statement took after by two/three assumptions numbered I, II and III. An assumption is something gathered or underestimated. Need to consider the statement and the accompanying presumptions and choose which of the assumptions is understood in the statement.

While doing problems on statement-assumptions one should peruse every statement deliberately and at whatever point find anything presupposed or underestimated, promptly see it. Misreading of a few certainties prompts mistaken answer. So while understanding one ought to be conscious about words in light of the fact that occasionally a single word’s nearness or absence changes the whole importance of a sentence.

Assumption: A assumption is something which is expected, assumed and underestimated. When somebody says something he may not put each part of his thought. That which is left inferred or underestimated is called an assumption.

Format of the problem:
Directions: In every question underneath a statement(or a section) is followed by two/three assumptions numbered I and II/III. Need to consider the announcement and the accompanying assumptions and afterwards choose which of the assumptions is certain in the announcement.
Given answers:
(a) if only assumption I is implicit.
(b) if only assumption II is implicit.
(c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.
(d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.
(e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

Difference between assumption and implication:
A assumption is something on which the statement is based, while implication is something which is gotten from and in this way based upon the statement.

Rules: 

  1. Assumption is always Indefinite & Positive
    Some, to large extent, many, much , exist in the assumption
     
  2. Some words like only, each, any, every, all, question indicating word ( why,these,what), Answer indicating words(therefor), Definitely, But , Certainly exist in the assumption that assumption will always be explicit(False).
  3. Some words like some, to large extent, many, much , exist in the assumption that assumption will always be implicit(True).
  4. Any assumption that is conveying the message of advertisement , notice, appeal that assumption will always be implicit(True).
  5. Any assumption that is talking about the social welfare (positive) , govt. policies that assumption will always be implicit(True).
  6. If any assumption is talking about past & future that assumption will always be explicit(False).
  7. If any assumption showing the word like suggestion, order, request that will always be implicit(True). Restatement  is never implicit.
  8. Comparison always wrong.

Tips for easy answering:
1. There might be more than one valid assumption for a statement. In all cases they are not fundamentally unrelated.
So in the event that you find that both the assumptions are valid mark the answer ‘both are understood’.
The answer choice “Possibly I or II is understood” is to be checked just when one assumption rejects the other.
This case happens just once in a while. So be cautious before denoting this choice.

2. In questions with more than two assumptions its combinations like I and II are implicit, II and III are certain, I and III are understood and so on are given as answer options.
If sure that presumption III is not understood, can eliminate with answer decisions which contains III in this manner reducing the quantity of answer decisions.
At that point choose answer from the remaining options.

3. If the given assumption is only in opposition to the given statement or if it is not associated with the given statement then the assumption can be promptly dismisses.
At times the presumption is a restatement of the given statement.
The candidate should be cautious in assessing this sort of assumptions.

Model 1: Statement: Purchase pure and natural pearls of organization `X’ – an advertisement.
Assumptions:
I: Artificial pearls can be prepared.
II: People wouldn’t mind paying more for pure and natural pearls.
Directions: The question given above consists a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit.
Given options:
a) if only assumption I is connected.
b) if only assumption II is connected.
c) if either assumption I or assumption II is connected.
d) if neither of the assumptions is connected.
e) if both the assumptions are connected.
Solution:

Given that:
Purchase pure and natural pearls of organization `X’ – an advertisement.
From the given statement, the commercial tells that the pearls of organization X is common, this implies artificial pearls might be accessible in the business sector.
So assumption I is connected.
However, the notice informs nothing concerning the cost of the pearls.
So II can’t be certain.
Therefore, correct answer is (a).

Model 2: 

Statement: The State Government has unilaterally increased, by 5 percent, octroi on all commodities entering into the state without seeking the approval of the Central Government.
Assumptions:

I. The state government may be able to solve the decision.

II. The Central Government may agree to support the State Government’s decision.

III. The state Government may be able to earn considerable amount through the additional Octroi.

These are the questions that either make you or break you. ‘Make you’ because they don’t require calculations, charts etc. and can be answered in just a glance, if done with mastery.

‘Break you’ because when Reasoning comes tough and those 2-3 seating and floors puzzle don’t give answers in even 2 repeated attempts then candidate tries Verbal Reasoning to leverage the score but without knowledge of techniques and sufficient practice these questions have higher chances of getting wrong.

What exactly goes wrong?

Now, when we try to solve these questions, the question might look difficult because our brain is so good at understanding un-stated assumptions that we don’t even notice them. So, if we think like we normally do then there’s risk of missing the assumption actually made, making it even harder to quickly identify them.

Also, in these assumption questions, we have to identify passage author’s assumption and not our own. We’ve got to remember that in those 40 or so minutes we allot to solve 50 questions from reasoning.

Caution to be taken:

Now coming to solving the question, Remember that:

(i) Leaving aside your logic about how things work helps.

(ii) While you can make common sense assumptions (the sun is visible only during the day, water makes things wet, etc.), do not bring in your own assumptions about things that are not necessarily common knowledge or may not always be true.

(iii) ‘Assumption’ in the questions is something that author believes to be true.

Procedure to solve the question:

Negating Method: This method is really effective when it comes to solving assumption questions. It’s a tested method that can turn the dreaded questions into scoring one. All you have to do is negate the assumptions after reading them. The passage author gives statement only after assuming some things. These ‘some things’ are dimensions of the questions. That means some basic assumptions are what author, definitely, believes in. And, if some assumption contradicts that basic belief of author then that assumption can never follow.

For example, see this:

Statement: In the recently held all India Commerce conference, the session on ‘Management of Service Sector in India’ surprisingly attracted large number of participants and also received a very good media coverage.

Assumptions:

I. Media is always very positive towards Service sector.

II. Service sector is managed properly in India.

III. People weren’t expecting such an encouraging response for the service sector conference.

Now, Statement talks about this session on Service Sector Management which got many participants which was surprising for the author. Also, it also got good media cover which was not as usual as per the author.

Let’s see different assumptions:

1. Media is always very positive towards Service sector. this option is tempting to select as an answer because Media gave Session on Service Sector a good coverage so it’s obvious to think that Media is ALWAYS positive towards it.

But that’s not true as there is an element of surprise in author’s word regarding media’s coverage. And, we don’t get surprise for something which happens usually. That means this behavior is new as per the author.

2. Service sector is managed properly in India. This option seems to be correct as a session on ‘Management’ of ‘Service Sector’ is organized. And, if a session is organized then things must have been well taken care of.

But that’s not correct. As it’s not stated anywhere in the sentence so this is, definitely, not author’s assumption.

Moreover, we’ve got to keep our general knowledge that ‘Service sector in actual world is managed properly in India as it contributes maximum to GDP’ aside as we are moving through author’s assumption.

3. People weren’t expecting such an encouraging response for the service sector conference. ⇒ this assumption is, indeed, true as since author wasn’t expecting such response (Public participation plus media coverage) then other people too must not have been expecting such ‘encouraging’ response.

We just saw how to solve such assumption questions while following author’s path and avoiding the knowledge that we have.

This method might look a bit time consuming. You might think “It’s better to solve those puzzles then going through such lengthy 4-5 questions”. But wait, we can make these questions solving easy too:

Step I: Gather all the questions you can on the topic of Statements-assumption. Be it R.S.Aggrawal book or any other book or questions from blogs like Gradestack. Just gather all the questions from all the credible sources. Mind it, credible, because many sites/books give wrong answer to these questions and that can hamper your logical thinking.

Step II: After having selected bulk of questions, start slowly practicing the questions. Read the statement, try answering without timing yourself. Check the answer, understand the logic. Start gradually and continue the practice.

Step III: After you’ve solved, 50-100 questions, you’ll start getting comfortable with the kind of assumptions they make. You’ll be able to tell in one-fourth time if assumption is truly author’s or not or how foolish the assumption is. After reaching this stage, just keep practicing and increase the level, if you’d like.

Step IV: When you’ve done hundreds of questions with the techniques described above, you’ll be able to attempt one statement-assumption question in hardly a minute. That too flawlessly. This is the mastery stage where you can solve any difficulty of statement-assumption, and verbal reasoning becomes scoring section for you.

Sample Questions:

1. Statement: ‘You are expected to be frank and objective while writing your self-appraisal report’. – An instruction for writing self-appraisal report.

Assumptions:

1. Unless cautioned, people may tend to be little shy and less objective while writing their self-appraisal report.

2. Every self-appraisal report helps the person in his further development.

Solution

In statement, the author advises, while writing Self Appraisal report to be expected frank & objective.
I. Unless cautioned, people may tend to be little shy and less objective while writing their self-appraisal report. ⇒ this could be the assumption because if people aren’t less objective and shy then why would author tell them that explicitly that they are expected to be objective.

II. Every self-appraisal report helps the person in his further development. ⇒ This cannot be the assumption as it’s nowhere mentioned in the statement that such report helps development. Here, we don’t have to use our real-world-logic which states otherwise.

2. Statement: The higher authorities of any organization are expected to be models of observation & learning and should not be considered as merely sources of reward and punishments.

Assumptions:

1. Employees are likely to be sensitive enough to learn by observing the behavior of their seniors.

4. Normally bosses are considered as sources of reward and punishment.

Solution: In the statement, the author tells what higher authority should be model of: Observation & Learning; And not just: reward & Punishment.

I. Employees are likely to be sensitive enough to learn by observing the behavior of their seniors ⇒ The author hasn’t mentioned anything about employees learning so this assumption just can’t be correct.

II. Normally bosses are considered as sources of reward and punishment. ⇒ This assumption is implicit because author said, “Higher authorities…….Not just source of reward & Punishment”. Here, author has tried to highlight some additional feature of Higher Authority, which gets diminished due to its ‘Reward & Punishment’ feature.

3. Statement: ‘But, out of X, Y, B and D products, you buy ‘Y’ which alone is based on the latest technology’ –A shop owner tells a customer.

Assumptions:

1. The customers normally accept the recommendation of the shop owner.

2. Use of latest technology is supposed to ensure better quality standards.

Solution: Here, the passage author has described the scene where a shopkeeper is telling the customer to buy ‘Y’ out four other products due to its superior technology.
I. The customers normally accept the recommendation of the shop owner. ⇒ If customer did never accept the recommendation of shopkeeper then why would shopkeeper recommend something. Here, shopkeeper is recommending that means customers normally accept that. Hence, it follows.

II. Use of latest technology is supposed to ensure better quality standards ⇒ A customer buys a product because it’s quality is good over others. And, technology if latest is superior over others in doing a specified task more efficiently than one with obsolete technology. So, this assumption also follow.

Statement: “Put a notification on the board that every one of the workers should go ahead time to office”- An officer tells his assistant.
Assumptions:
I: All employees come late.
II: Employees read such notice on the Board.
III. Employees will follow the instructions
Directions: The question given above consists a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I , II and III. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit.
Given options:
(a) Only I and II are implicit.
(b) Only III is implicit
(c) Only I and III are implicit
(d) Only II and III are implicit
(e) All are implicit.
Solution:

Given that:
“Put a notification on the board that every one of the workers should go ahead time to office”- An officer tells his assistant.
It is clear that, the statement does not imply that every one of the workers come late.
Some of them might be coming late.
Therefore assumption I is not verifiable.
The officer arranges his assistant to put a notification on the notification board in light of the fact that the representatives read the notification generally putting a notification has no relevance.
Likewise he expect that the workers will take after the instructions.
Therefore, the assumptions II and III are verifiable in the announcement.
Hence, option (d) is correct choice.

Model 3: Statement: Pollution is a moderate toxin, and in this manner social researchers and the media must cooperate to make sensitivity among individuals.
Assumptions:
I: Media is very much educated and mindful about the impacts of contamination.
II: Media is liable to impact individuals to raise their sensitivity towards different issues.
Directions: The question given above consists a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit.
Given options:
a) if only assumption I is implicit.
b) if only assumption II is implicit.
c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.
d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.
e) if both the assumptions are implicit.
Solution:

Given statement:
Pollution is a moderate toxin, and in this manner social researchers and the media must cooperate to make sensitivity among individuals.
In the event that media is not ready to impact individuals to raise their sensitivity towards different issues, including contamination issue, the media would not have been encouraged to do as such.
Therefore, assumption II is implicit.
The reality of the matter is that media is very much impacted about the impacts of pollution .
In any case, it is not clear whether it knows about the impacts of contamination or not.
Therefore, correct answer is option(b).

Model 4: Statement: ‘Z – TV, the main TV which gives the viewers opportunity to watch two programmes at the same time’ – an advertisement.
Assumptions:
I. Sale of Z-TV may increase because of the advertisement .
II. Some people may be influenced by the advertisement and buy Z-TV.
III. The sale of Z.TV may be on the downward trend.
Directions: The question given above consists a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I , II and III. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit.
Given options:
(a) Only I and II are implicit.
(b) Only III is implicit
(c) Only I and III are implicit
(d) Only II and III are implicit
(e) All are implicit.
Solution:

Given statement:
‘Z – TV, the main TV which gives the viewers opportunity to watch two programmes at the same time’ – an advertisement.
It is highlighted in the advertisement that the facility of watching two programmes all the while is given by the Z-T.V just a few persons might be affected by this unique facility and therefore the sale may increment.
The advertisement highlighting one of a kind facility does not imply that there is a descending trend in the sale of Z-TV.
Therefore, just assumptions I and II are verifiable.
Hence, option(c) is the right choice.

Model 5: Statement: “Try not to duplicate our software without our consent” – A notification
Assumptions:
I: It is possible to copy the software.
II: Such warning will have some effect.
Directions: The question below given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumptions is implicit.
Given options:
a) if only assumption I is implicit.
b) if only assumption II is implicit.
c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.
d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.
e) if both the assumptions are implicit.
Solution:

Given statement is:
“Try not to duplicate our software without our consent” – A notification
From the statement, it is clear that, both the assumptions are certain.
In the event that it was impractical to duplicate the product, such explanation would not have made.
The notice is given since it might have some impact.
In this manner assumptions I and II are implicit.
Therefore, option(e) is the right choice.