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1-  THE National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion.

2- The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three.

3- In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.

4-  Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.

5-  The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.

6-  The Flag Code of India, 2002, has taken effect from 26 January 2002.

7-  As per the provisions of the Flag Code of India, 2002, there shall be no restriction on the display of the National Flag by members of general public, private organisations, educational institutions, etc., except to the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other law enacted on the subject.


1- The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.

2- In the original, there are four lions, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse (left side), a bull (right side) and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.

3-  The Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).

4-  State emblem was adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950.

5- Now, the bell-shaped lotus has been omitted.

6-  The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.


1- The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950.

2-  It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Kolkata Session of the Indian National Congress.

3-  The complete song consists of five stanzas.

4-  Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is 52 seconds.

5-  Playing time of the short version of the national anthem is 20 seconds.


1-  The song Vande Mataram, composed in sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom.

2-  It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana.

3-  The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.


1-  The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month.

2- A normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes.

3-  Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.


1-  The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, is the national animal of India.

2-  Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighboring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.


1- The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. The male of the species is more colorful than the female.


. Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India.


.  The Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis) is the National Tree of India.



1-  Mango (Manigifera indica) is the National fruit of India. Mango is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D

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