Distance and direction is the measurement of position of an object or thing with respected to another one.
In the exams, a successive series of directions is formulated and the candidates is required to ascertain the final direction and the distance between two points.
At a glance
Direction is a measurement of position of one thing with respected to another thing.
Displacement is the measurement of distance between initial and the final point.
Here the candidate's ability to trace and follow the logical path correctly and sense of direction correctly as well. Direction and distance test mainly deals with two types of direction i.e.. main direction and cardinal direction
There are four type of directions, viz. East West North and South. Sun rises in the East. Just opposite of East is West and South is in the opposite to North.
Abbreviations for these directions are E (East), W (West), N (North) and S (South).
A direction between two main directions is called cardinal direction. Clearly, there are four cardinal directions.
- N-E (North-East)
- N-W (North-West)
- S-E (South-East) and
- S-W (South-West)
We should use the diagram as given in question for the purpose of sensing directions.
Note:- Angle formed between two main directions is 90o and angle formed between a cardinal direction and main direction is 45 o
Rotation of Angles
To solve angle movement questions. It is necessary to know about the rotations of angles which are given below
- i) For right direction movement (Clockwise)
- ii) For left direction movement (Anti-clockwise)
Left turn Anti-clockwise direction
Right turn Clockwise direction
The Change in Direction when a Person or Vehicle Takes A Right or a Left Turn
Direction before taking the turn
Direction in which the person or vehicle will be moving after taking the turn
The distance from a point is ‘P’ in horizontal direction and a distance of ‘Q’ in vertical direction is equal to.
- QR2 = QP2 + PR2 or QR=
- QP2 = QR2– PR2 or QP =
III. PR2 = QR2 – QP2 or PR=
In morning/ Sunrise time
- a) If a person facing towards Sun, the shadow will be towards his back or in west.
- b) If a person facing towards South, the shadow will be towards his right.
- c) If a person facing towards West, the shadow will be towards his front.
- d) If a person facing towards North, the shadow will be towards his left.
In evening/ Sunset time
- a) If a person facing towards Sun, the shadow will be towards his back or in East.
- b) If a person facing towards North, the shadow will be towards his right.
- c) If a person facing towards East, the shadow will be towards his front.
- d) If a person facing towards South, the shadow will be towards his left.
Note- At 12:00 noon is no shadow because the rays of the Sun are vertically downward.
Question covered under the head of ‘direction test’ further divided into following types
Type 1. Final Direction Based
In this type of questions, we have to ascertain the final direction with respected to the initial point or the directional relations between two points/things.
Example 1. A man is facing towards West and turns through 450 clockwise, again 1800 clockwise and then turns through 2700 anti-clockwise. In which direction is he facing now?
- a) West
- b) North-West
- c) North
- d) South
- e) South-West
Finally on moving 2700 anti- clockwise, he faces in the direction OS which is South-West.
Type-2 Distance (Displacement) Based
In this type of question, we deal with the final distance between starting and final point or between two points/persons/things. There are various formats/patterns of displacement.
Example 1. Mayank walks 20 m North. Then, he turns right and walks 30 m. Now, he turns right and walks 35 m. Now, turning left, he walks 15 m. Again, he turns lefts and moves 15 m. Finally, turning left he again walks 15 m. In which direction and how far is he from his original position?
- a) 15 m, East
- b) 45 m, East
- c) 15 m, West
- d) 45 m, West
- e) None of these
Mayank’s distance from his original position (AF) = BC + DE = 30 + 15 = 45 m
Also ‘F’ lies to East of ‘A’.
Type-3. Distance (Displacement) and Direction Based
In this type of questions, we deal with the final distance between starting and final point of any person/object/thing. There are various formats/patterns of distance and direction.
Example 1. A tourist drives 10 Km towards East and turns to the right hand and drives 3 Km. Then, he drives towards West (turning to his right) 3 Km. He, then turns to his left and drives 2 Km. Finally he turns to his right and travels 7 Km. How far is he from his starting point and in which direction would he be?
- a) 10 Km, East
- b) 9 Km, North
- c) 8 Km, West
- d) 5 Km, South
- e) 3 Km, South
Required distance AF = BC + DE = 3 + 2 = 5 Km
His final point is F which is in South direction from starting point A.