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Daily G.K


राज्यसभा ने 3 August, 2016 को GST Bill निर्विरोध पारित कर दिया. यह बिल लोकसभा द्वारा पहले ही पारित किया जा चुका है. इस प्रकार इस बिल को दोनों सदनों की मंजूरी मिल चुकी है. इसे एक एतिहासिक घटना बताया जा रह है. Economists का कहना है कि 1947 के बाद से यह भारत का आर्थिक सुधार (economic reform) का कदम है. 19/10/2016 को GST Council की तीसरी बैठक हुई. इसमें GST के लिए दर (rate) का निर्धारण करने पर विचार हुआ. इसमें केंद्र सरकार के वित्त मंत्री एवं विभिन्न राज्यों के प्रतिनिधि सम्मिलित हुए. बैठक में GST rate पर कोई अंतिम निर्णय नहीं हो पाया. अधिकांश राज्यों को demerit goods पर अतिरिक्त cess लगाने को लेकर आपत्ति थी. अब यह बैठक पुनः 3-4 नवम्बर, 2016 को होगी जिसमें GST की कर संरचना पर अंतिम निर्णय लिया जाएगा.

GST (Good and Services Tax) को समझने के लिए पहले हमें पहले भारत के tax structure को समझना होगा. आइए सर्वप्रथम भारत के टैक्स स्ट्रक्चर को समझते हैं.......Read More





1. भारत में आर्य सर्वप्रथम कहाँ आकर बसे — सिंधु घाटी में

2. आर्यों के आदिदेश के बारे में किसने लिखा — बाल गंगाधर तिलक

3.  ‘आर्य’ शब्द का अर्थ क्या है – श्रेष्ठ या कुलीन

 4.  क्लासिकीय अर्थ में आर्य सबध का क्या अर्थ है — उत्तम व्यक्ति

 5. आर्य भारत में कहाँ से आए— मध्य एशिया से

 6.  आर्यों की प्रशासनिक इकाई इन पांच भागों में बंटी थी — (1) कुल (2) ग्राम (3) विश (4) जन (5) राष्ट्र.

 7.  आर्यों की भाषा क्या थी— संस्कृत

 8.  पूर्व  वैदिक  आर्यो  का  धर्म  प्रमुखतः क्या  था —  प्रकृति  पूजा  और  यज्ञ

 9.  आर्यों द्वारा विकसित सभ्यता क्या थी  — ग्रामीण सभ्यता

10.  आर्यों का मुख्य व्यवसाय क्या था— पशुपालन एवं कृषि.......Read More



The General Conference of UNESCO in 1972 adopted a resolution for  ‘Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage’.

Its main objective was to define the
World Heritage in both cultural and natural aspects and to enlist Sites and Monuments from the member countries which are of  interest and universal value, the protection of those is the concern of all mankind and to promote co-operation among all Nations and people to contribute for the protection of these universal treasures intact for future generation The List of recorded sites on the World Heritage is 981 which include both cultural and natural wonders. These include 759 cultural, 193 natural and 29 mixed properties in 137 state parties......Read More



We are providing here the highlights and short summary about the Census conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, in Ministry of Home Affairs which was published on March 31.

    • This is the 15th Census of India and the 7th Census of Independent India-2011 was started on 1st April 2010 with President Smt.Pratibha Patil being the first citizen to be accounted.
    • The cost of the Census was estimated to be 22 Billion Rupees.
    • The motto of Census 2011 – ‘Our Census, Our future’.
    • The logo of Census has been explained in the image below..........Read More

List of Jnanpith (Gyanpith) Award Winners till 2016 

The Literary award Jnanpith or Gyanpith is one of the highest literary honour in India. Some call it Gyanpeeth award also.  The award is meant to recognize, nurture and promote the excellence in writing in all recognized Indian languages.

In recent past, there have been a few questions asked on this topic. Since the topic of Jnanpith Awards is a very simple topic, this quick compilation will help the aspirants in answering random questions from here.

>> The Jnanpith award is awarded every year for best creative writing to an Indian citizen in any of the languages that are included in Schedule VIII of the Indian Constitution. This award is considered to be the most prestigious literary award of the country. ............Read More


Fundamentals of Indian
Economy and Planning

1. National Development Council was set up in:
(a) 1948
(b) 1950
(c) 1951
(d) 1952
Ans: (d)

2. Economic Planning is a subject: [Asstt Grade 1991]
(a) in the Union List
(b) in the State List
(c) in the Concurrent List
(d) unspecified in any special list
Ans: (a)

3. For internal financing of Five Year Plans, the government depends on: [NDA 1991]
(a) taxation only
(b) taxation and public borrowing
(c) public borrowing and deficit financing
(d) taxation, public borrowing and deficit financing
Ans: (a)

4. The National Development Council gets its administrative support from:
(a) Planning Commission
(b) Finance Commission
(c) Administrative Reforms Commission
(d) Sarkaria Commission
Ans: (a)

5. The Five Year Plans of India intend to develop the country industrially through: [NDA1991]
(a) the public sector
(b) the private sector
(c) the public, private, joint and Cooperative sectors
(d) increasing collaboration with non-resident Indians
Ans: (c)...........................


1. सबसे बड़ी आँखें किस स्तनधारी प्राणी कीहोती है? --- हिरण
2. आज कार्बन डाइऑक्साइड (CO2) के उत्सर्जन
में सर्वाधिक योगदान करने वाला देश है? ---
संयुक्त राज्य अमरीका
3. निम्नलिखित में से किस उद्योग में अभ्रक
कच्चे माल के रूप में प्रयुक्त होता है? --- विद्युत
4. विद्युत प्रेस का आविष्कार किसने किया
था? --- हेनरी शीले ने
5. प्रेशर कुकर में खाना जल्दी पक जाता है,
क्योंकि? --- प्रेशर कुकर के अन्दर दाब अधिक
होता है.............READ MORE

68 Amazing Facts About India We Bet You Didn’t Know.


East or west, India is the best 🙂

1) Around a 100 million years ago, India was an island.
2) India’s name is derived from the “Indus” river.
3) Indus Valley Civilisation is the world’s oldest civilisation.
4) India, hence, is the world’s oldest, most advanced and continuous civilisation.
5) India has been the largest troop contributor to the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions since its inception.
6) India has the world’s third largest active army, after China and USA.
7) The Tirupati Balaji temple and the Kashi Vishwanath Temple both, receive more visitors than the Vatican City and Mecca combined.

8) Every 12 years, a religious gathering called the Kumbh Mela occurs in India. It is the world’s largest gathering of people.
9) The gathering is so large that the Kumbh Mela is visible from the space.

Kumbh Mela from Space.

10) Varanasi is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
11) India has more mosques (300,000 mosques) than any other nation in the world.
12) And the third largest Muslim population in the world.
13) Takshila is said to be the first every university in the world; it started around 700 BC.


14) Today, India has the world’s largest school in terms of students, the City Montessori School in Lucknow. It has more than 45 thousand students!
15) Indian Railways employs more than 1.3 million people. That’s more than the population of many nations.
16) More than 54 crore people voted in the 2014 General Election – more people than the population of USA, UK, Australia and Japan combined.
17) Number of births in India every year is more than the total population of Australia, and many other nations.
18) India has the largest English speaking population in the world.
19) At an estimate, 25% of the total workforce of the world’s population will be from India in the next year or so.
20) India’s first rocket was brought on cycle and a satellite on bullock cart.
21) And despite budgetary constraints, India’s space program is one of the top 5 space programs in the world.

India’s first rocket, on a cycle.

22) In 2004, 200 women took law in their own hands and came to the court armed with vegetable knives and chilli powder and murdered on the court floor a serial rapist – Akku Yadav. Then every woman claimed responsibility for the murder.
23) English Actor Sir Ben Kingsley’s birth name is Krishna Pandit Bhanji and he is of Indian descent.
24) Lonar Lake, a saltwater lake in Maharashtra, was created by a meteor hitting the Earth and is one of its kind in India.

25) In a village called Shani Shingnapur in Maharashtra, people have been living in houses with no doors for generations. This is because they believe that whoever steals anything from this place will incur the wrath of Shani God and will have to pay for his/her sins very dearly. There is no police station in this village either.
26) Magnetic Hill is a gravity hill located near Leh in Ladakh, India. The hill is alleged to have magnetic properties strong enough to pull cars uphill and force passing aircraft to increase their altitude in order to escape magnetic interference.


27) Viswanathan Anand is the first player in chess history to have won the World Championship in three different formats: knockout, tournament, and match.
28) Chess was invented in India.
29) Buttons were invented in India. Yes, your shirt’s buttons.
30) We also invented the ruler.
31) And shampoo.
32) And discovered the number zero.
33) And the value of pi. 
34) And trigonometry, algebra, calculus.
35) And cataract surgery.
36) And plastic surgery.
37) And diamond mining.
38) And water on the moon.

39) Until 1986, the only place where diamonds had been officially found was in India.
40) India has banned all captive dolphins, stating that dolphins should be viewed of non human persons.
41) India’s tech capital, Bangalore, has increased its office supply by six times since 2006, and now has more Grade-A offices than Singapore.
42) India is the largest producer of films in the world.
43) India is the largest milk producer in the world.
44) India leads the world with the most murders (32,719) per year, with Russia taking second at 28,904 murders per year.
45) To avoid polluting the elements (fire, earth, water, air), followers of Zoroastrianism in India don’t bury their dead, but instead leave bodies in buildings called “Towers of Silence” for the vultures to pick clean. After the bones dry, they are swept into a central well.
46) Karmanasa River in India is considered to be a cursed river and it is believed that touching its water would ruin one’s plans. There’s hardly any development along this river. People around this river just eat dry fruits because cooking food would require water!
47) Two major religions, Buddhism and Jainism, were established in India.
48) Chail in Himachal Pradesh is the highest cricket pitch in the world. It is situated at an elevation of 2444 meters (above the sea level).
49) The India-Pakistan World Cup semi-final match in Mohali drew 150 million viewers worldwide.
50) Sachin Tendulkar. (Okay, you knew this!)
51) The first Granite Temple of the world, the Brihadeswara Temple is situated in Tamil Nadu. It was built during the 11th century, in only five years.

52) Around the 17th century, India was one of the richest countries in the world.
53) Today, India is the world’s third largest economy.
54) India is one of the only three countries that makes supercomputers (the US and Japan are the other two).
55) The world’s largest road network is in India—over 1.9 million miles of roads cover the country.
56) India has the largest amount of vegetarians in the world.
57) So much so that Pizza Hut had to open their first pure vegetarian restaurant in the country.
58) And KFC had to introduce a “vegetarian” menu for India.
59) And so did McDonalds, the world’s largest fast-food manufacturer.
60) Chai is India’s national drink.
61) India grows 1.2 million tons of mangoes every year, weight equivalent to 80,000 blue whales.
62) The state of Meghalaya is the wettest inhabited place of earth.
63) India gave the world Yoga, that has existed for more than 5,000 years.
64) May 26 is celebrated as the Science Day in Switzerland in honour of former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, because on the day, Kalam visited the country 🙂
65) Martial Arts was first created in India.
66) The world’s biggest family lives in India. One man, 39 wives and 94 children.
67) India is the world’s largest importer of arms.
68) But India has never invaded or attacked a country.

We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.Albert Einstein.

Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

1. Light waves don’t always move in straight lines:

It is generally believed that light waves only move in straight lines. However, as per the recent research in 2010 using computer controlled hologram, it has been proved that light, too, can get twisted into knots. According to the study, when light passes through the hologram, it twists into different shapes, producing multiple knots.

Light waves don’t always move in straight lines - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics


2. Unbelievable hydrogen energy:

It is estimated that Sun burns around 620 million metric tons of hydrogen/second into 616 million metric tons of helium. Out of this total volume, around 4 million tons of mass enters the solar system. Furthermore, only about 3.6 pounds of the mass reaches our earth. Had even 1 percent of the energy produced out of fusion reached us, what would have been the scenario?

Unbelievable hydrogen energy - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

3.  Human radiations:

As per the recent studies and discoveries in the field of Physics, a nude human body constantly radiates around 1000 watts of heat and absorbs about 900 watts. However, once the person covers his body with clothes, the outflow of the heat flux reduces considerably due to the exterior barrier. The amount of heat outflow from the human body is more than enough in lightning up a 100 watt bulb for some time.

Human radiations - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

4. Anti-gravity movement:

Water can easily run against the gravitational pull when moving up narrow pipes. The process is described as ‘Capillary Action’. Water moves up in the narrow spaces without any assistance and against the gravitational force. This ability of the liquid proves that gravitational force can’t control the movement of every matter present on earth. At times, other forces (Surface tension, in this case) can defeat it.

Anti-gravity movement - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

5. Viscous fluids can flow at high speeds:

It is generally believed that viscous fluids can’t flow fast enough like water – a liquid with reduced viscous level. However, some scientists went on to prove that fluids like “Ketchup” can attain high speeds, too, if constantly sheered over a period of time till they attain momentum. Once thrust is achieved, the viscous forces dwindle down considerably and free movement is observed.

Viscous fluids can flow at high speeds - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics



6. Gravitational constant:

The standard value of the gravitational constant is 9.8 m/s^2. It must be well known to all the science students that the value is calculated from the free fall of an object at sea level. The point worth noting is that the free fall should be at latitude of 45 degrees from the base level in order to obtain this value than 90 degrees as believed by the most.

Gravitational constant - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

7. Air current:

The speed of wind near the surface of ocean is much lower than what is observed in the higher altitudes. The reason can be attributed to the friction it receives from the water surface. It is due to this reason that most birds fly at a higher altitude. They manipulate the wind power in order to use least amount of energy on flying.

Air current - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

8. Universe is a Computer:

On the basis of a paper published by a professor in MIT, the Universe is equivalent to a computer. The figure is roughly equal to 10^120 bits. The number was calculated by him on the basis of the amount of information that can be stored in a volume just before it adopts the properties of a black hole. The information can be equated to absolute entropy of the universe.

Universe is a Computer - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

9. Mystery of microwave and liquids:

As per the latest researches worldwide, water in the liquid state has the characteristic to enable many new molecular interactions to develop. This helps in enhancing absorption of heat by food items. Due to this property, foods items like burgers become soft enough to be eaten after coming out of microwave ovens.

Mystery of microwave and liquids - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

10. Ultimate expansion:

It is proved by scientific theories that the universe is constantly expanding. It is expanding at a decent pace and it is believed that galaxies will evaporate in the coming 10^19 to 10^20 years. It has been learnt from a number of theories by different Physicists worldwide that only White Dwarfs (a type of star) would be able to survive as their lifetime is more than 10^32 years.

Ultimate expansion - Mind-blowing Facts about Physics

Environmental Facts

1. Approximately 20 million people across the United States celebrated the first Earth Day, on April 22, 1970. Today, more than 1 billion people around the world take part in the event.

2. In 1995 over 200 of the world landfills were full.

3. Each person throws away approximately 4 pounds of garbage per day.

4. Approximately 5 million tons of oil produced in the world each year ends up in the ocean.

5. The energy we save when we recycle one glass bottle is enough to light a traditional light bulb for four hours

6. In, 1931, Albert Einstein, collected a Nobel Prize for is work in solar and photovoltaic experimentation.

DIRTY ENERGY IS EXPENSIVE 27. Every ton of paper that is recycled saves 17 trees, 2 barrels of oil, 4,100 kilowatts of energy, 3.2 cubic yards of landfill space and 60 pounds of air pollution.

8. 14 billion pounds of trash is dumped into the ocean every year

9. 84% of all household waste can be recycled

10. More than 1/3 of all energy is used by people at home

11. Most families throw away about 88 pounds of plastic every year

12. Everyday in the United States, we produce enough trash to equal the weight of the Empire State Building

13. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a swirling vortex of waste and debris in the Pacific Ocean. This area is twice the size of the continental US and is believed to hold almost 100 million tons of garbage.

14. The human population has grown more in the last 50 years than it did in the previous 4 million years

15. John Herschel, a British astronomer, converted solar power by using a solar collector box to cook food while on an African expedition, in 1830.

16. In some elementary schools, after Halloween and Christmas, Earth Day is the third largest celebrated holiday

17. One in four mammals is at risk of extinction – 78% of marine mammals are threatened by accidental deaths such as getting caught in fishing nets intended for other species.

18. At least 50 million acres of rainforest are lost every year, totaling an area the size of England, Wales and Scotland combined.

19. Average temperatures will increase by as much as 12 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the 21st century if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise at the current pace.

20. If the entire world lived like the average American, we’d need 5 planets to provide enough resources.

21. A world record was set in 1990 when a solar powered aircraft flew 4060km across the USA, using no fuel.

22. In one hour more sunlight falls on the earth than what is used by the entire population in one year.

23. April 22 is the first official day of Spring in the Northern hemisphere and of Fall in the Southern hemisphere and was chosen to be Earth Day for this reason

24. More than 20,000,000 Hershey’s Kisses are wrapped each day, using 133 square miles of tinfoil. All that foil is recyclable, but not many people realize it.

25. Only 11% of the earth’s surface is used to grow food.

26. If every newspaper was recycled, we could save about 250,000,000 trees each year. Unfortunately only 27% of all American newspapers are recycled.

27. A highlight of the annual Earth Day ceremony at the United Nations is the ringing of the Peace Bell that was given to the UN by Japan. It is made from coins given by school children to further peace on our planet.

28. By using renewable energy sources to provide your daily energy needs we can decease CO2 emissions with 20,000 pounds less of carbon dioxide each year, including 50 pounds of nitrogen oxide less, and 70 pounds of less sulfur dioxide omitted into our atmosphere.

29. Americans throw away enough aluminum to rebuild our entire commercial fleet of airplanes every 3 months.

30. The U.S. is 5% of the world’s population but uses 25% of its natural resources. We use one million gallons of oil every two minutes.

31. More than 100 million Americans live in urban areas where the air is officially classified by the EPA as unsafe to breathe.

32. The US has less than 4% of its forests left.

33. 40% of our waterways are undrinkable.

34. 200,000 people a day are moving to cities from environments that no longer support them.

35. According to the National Academy of Sciences, on average there are 27 oil spills every day somewhere in the waters of the worlds

36. Residential lawns and gardens are doused with 80 million pounds of chemical pesticides and 70 million tons of fertilizers annually.

37. It would cost about $13 billion annually to satisfy the world’s basic sanitation and food requirements. That’s roughly equivalent to what Americans and Europeans spend on perfume and cologne every year.

38. Each year Americans alone throw away 18 billion disposable diapers. In perspective, this is enough to extend from the earth to the moon and back 7 times.

39. Ford Motor Company indicates that 75% of every vehicle is recyclable.

40. In 1 year, the earth will travel 1.6 million miles in its annual journey around the Sun, the 4.6-billionth such round-trip. It will rotate about its axis exactly once.

AWESOME Science Facts

1. Water can boil and freeze at the same time


Seriously, it's called the 'triple point', and it occurs when the temperature and pressure is just right for the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of a substance to coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. This video shows cyclohexane in a vacuum.

2. Lasers can get trapped in a waterfall


Oh my gosh, yes. Not only is this an incredible example of total internal reflection, it also shows how fibre optic cables work to guide the flow of light.

3. We've got spacecraft hurtling towards the edge of our Solar System really, really fast


We all know rockets are fast, and space is big. But sometimes when we're talking about how long it takes for us to get to distant parts of the Solar System (eight months to get to Mars, are you kidding me?) it can feel like our spacecraft are just crawling along out there.

This gif shows just how wrong that idea is by comparing the speed of the New Horizons probe, which flew past Pluto last year, to a 747 and SR-71 Blackbird.

4. An egg looks like a crazy jellyfish underwater


A cracked egg on land might make a big mess, but 18 metres (60 feet) below the surface of the ocean, the pressure on the egg is 2.8 times atmospheric pressure, and it holds it all together like an invisible egg shell. True story.  

5. You can prove Pythagoras' theorem with fluid


Not buying what your maths teacher is selling when they tell you a2 + b2 = c2? You can actually prove it with liquid.

6. This is what happens when a black hole swallows a star


As the star gets sucked up into the black hole, a huge jet of plasma is burped out, spanning hundreds of light-years. "When the star is ripped apart by the gravitational forces of the black hole, some part of the star's remains falls into the black hole, while the rest is ejected at high speeds," explains Johns Hopkins University researcher, Suvi Gezari. 

7. You CAN see without your glasses

According to MinutePhysics, all you need to do is make a pinhole with your hand, which will help you focus the light coming into your retina. Sure, it won't give you 20/20 vision, but it's a good start if you've left your glasses at home.

8. This is how a face forms in the womb


Embryonic development is an incredibly complex process that scientists are still just beginning to understand. But one thing researchers have been able to map out is how the embryo folds to create the structures of the human face in the womb. We could watch this all day.

9. Popping your knuckles isn't necessarily bad for you

One researcher popped the knuckles of one hand for 60 years but not the other, and found no discernible difference in the amount of arthritis between the two of them at the end of his experiment.

Find out more in this video from Vox:

10. A single solar flare can release the equivalent energy of millions of 100-megaton atomic bombs

And they're happening all the time.

11. Cats always land on their feet, thanks to physics

Smarter Every Day

As Smarter Every Day demonstrated with this awesome slow-mo footage, cats actually use the two halves of their bodies separately to ensure rapid rotation (don't try this at home).

Watch the full video here:

12. You'd be better off surviving a grenade on land rather than underwater

Those balloons? That's what would happen to your lungs if an explosion went off near you underwater.

13. If you spin a ball as you drop it, it flies

I mean, it really flies. It's thanks to the Magnus effect, which occurs when the air on the front side of a spinning object is going the same direction as its spin, which means it gets dragged along with the object and deflected back.

Meanwhile, the air on the other side of the ball is moving in the opposite direction, so the air flow separates.

Watch Veritasium explain it better than we ever could:

We could keep going... but the best part about science is that it discovers new things every day. Never stop learning.

BRB... going to go drop a feather and a bowling ball at the same time:

AWESOME Science Facts

1. There is enough DNA in an average person’s body to stretch from the sun to Pluto and back — 17 times

DNA length

The human genome, the genetic code in each human cell, contains 23 DNA molecules each containing from 500 thousand to 2.5 million nucleotide pairs. DNA molecules of this size are 1.7 to 8.5 cm long when uncoiled, or about 5 cm on average. There are about 37 trillion cells in the human body and if you’d uncoil all of the DNA encased in each cell and put them end to end, then these would sum to a total length of 2×1014 meters or enough for 17 Pluto roundtrips (1.2×1013 meters/Pluto roundtrip).

2. The average human body carries ten times more bacterial cells than human cells

bacteria human body

It’s funny how we compulsively wash our hands, spray our countertops and grimace when someone sneezes near us—in fact, we do everything we can to avoid unnecessary encounters with the germ world. The truth of the matter is that each and every one of us is a walking petri dish! All the bacteria living inside you would fill a half-gallon jug or 10 times more bacterial cells in your body than human cells, according to Carolyn Bohach, a microbiologist at the University of Idaho. Don’t worry, though. Most of these bacteria are helpful; in fact, we couldn’t survive without them.

For one thing, bacteria produce chemicals that help us harness energy and nutrients from our food. Germ-free rodents have to consume nearly a third more calories than normal rodents to maintain their body weight, and when the same animals were later given a dose of bacteria, their body fat levels spiked, even if they didn’t eat any more than they had before. The gut bacteria is also very important to maintaining immunity. (image source)

3. It can take a photon 40,000 years to travel from the core of the sun to its surface, but only 8 minutes to travel the rest of the way to Earth

photons from the sun

A photon travels, on average, a particular distance, d, before being briefly absorbed and released by an atom, which scatters it in a new random direction.From the core to the sun’s surface (696,000 kilometers) where it can escape into space, a photon needs to make a huge number of drunken jumps. The calculation is a little tricky, but the conclusion is that a photon takes between many thousands and many millions of years to drunkenly wander to the surface of the Sun. In a way, the light that reaches us today is energy produced maybe millions of years ago. Amazing! (image source)

4. At over 2000 kilometers long, The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living structure on Earth

Coral reef

Coral reefs consist of huge numbers of individual coral polyps – soft-bodied, invertebrate animals – linked by tissue. The Great Barrier Reef is an interlinked system of about 3000 reefs and 900 coral islands, divided by narrow passages, just beneath the surface of the Coral Sea.Spanning more than 2000 km and covering an area of some 350 000 sq km, it is the largest living structure on Earth and the only one visible from space. But this fragile coral colony is beginning to crumble, battered by the effects of climate change, pollution and manmade disasters. (image source)

5. There are 8 times as many atoms in a teaspoonful of water as there are teaspoonfuls of water in the Atlantic ocean

water molecules

A teaspoon of water (about 5 mL) contains 2×1023 water molecules, but each water molecule is comprised of 3 atoms: two hydrogen and one oxygen. Moreover, if you’d laid down end to end each water molecule from a teaspoon full you’d end up with a length of 50 billion km or 10 times the width of our solar system. (image source)

6. The average person walks the equivalent of five times around the world in a lifetime

walk around the world

The average moderately active person take aound 7,500 step/day.  If you maintain that daily average and live until 80 years of age, you’ll have walked about 216,262,500 steps in your lifetime. Doing the math;  the average person with the average stride living until 80 will walk a distance of around 110,000 miles.  Which is the equivalent of walking about 5 times around the Earth, right on the equator. (image source)

7. When Helium is cooled to almost absolute zero (-460°F or -273°C), the  lowest temperature possible, it becomes a liquid with surprising  properties: it flows against gravity and will start running up and over the lip of a glass container!

superfluid helium

We all know helium as a gas for blowing up balloons and making people talk like chipmunks, but what most people don’t know is that it comes in two distinct liquid states, one of which is borderline creepy. When helium is just a few degrees below its boiling point of –452 degrees Fahrenheit (–269 degrees Celsius) it will suddenly be able to do things that other fluids can’t, like dribble through molecule-thin cracks, climb up and over the sides of a dish, and remain motionless when its container is spun. No longer a mere liquid, the helium has become a superfluid—a liquid that flows without friction.

“If you set [down] a cup with a liquid circulating around and you come back 10 minutes later, of course it’s stopped moving,” says John Beamish, an experimental physicist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. Atoms in the liquid will collide with one another and slow down. “But if you did that with helium at low temperature and came back a million years later,” he says, “it would still be moving. (image source)

8. If Betelgeuse would explode transiting from the red super giant stage to supernova then our sky would light continuously for two months. It can happen anytime, within a couple of thousand years, tomorrow or even now

supernova explosion

Betelgeuse lies some 430 light-years from Earth. Yet it’s already one of the brightest stars in Earth’s sky. The reason is that Betelgeuse is a supergiant star – the largest kind of stars in the Universe. Betelgeuse has a luminosity about 10,000 times that of the Sun and its radius is calculated to be about 370 times that of the sun. If it were positioned at the center of our sun, its radius would extend out past the orbit of Mars. Because it’s near the end of its lifetime, Betelgeuse is likely to explode into a supernova. (image source)

9. An individual blood cell takes about 60 seconds to make a complete circuit of the body

blood cell

You have about 5 litres of blood in your body (at least most people do) and the average heart pumps about 70 ml of blood out with each beat. Also, a healthy heart beats around 70 times a minute. So, if you multiply the amount of blood that the heart can pump by the number of beats in a minute, you actually get about 4.9 litres of blood, which is almost your whole body’s worth of blood. In just a minute, the hearts pumps the entire blood volume around your body. (image source)

10. The known universe is made up of 50,000,000,000 galaxies. There are between 100,000,000,000 and 1,000,000,000,000 stars in a normal galaxy. In the Milky Way alone there might be as many 100 billion Earth-like planets. Still think you’re alone?



No one knows exactly how old cotton is. Scientists searching Open Cotton Bollcaves in Mexico found bits of cotton bolls and pieces of cotton cloth that proved to be at least 7,000 years old. They also found that the cotton itself was much like that grown in America today.

In the Indus River Valley in Pakistan, cotton was being grown, spun and woven into cloth 3,000 years BC. At about the same time, natives of Egypt’s Nile valley were making and wearing cotton clothing.