The Reasoning section of every competitive exam includes questions from the topic "Blood Relations". This topic is considered to be quiet important and every year a good number of questions are asked from this topic. It is considered to be a very scoring topic. We are providing you with all the important tools to solve blood relations questions.
How to solve Blood Relation Questions easily
Family or Blood Relationship means persons connected by relations like –
father-mother, son daughter, brother-sister, grandfather-grandmother, uncle-aunty, nephew-niece, brother-in-law sister-in-law etc. The list can go on and on adding members from father’s side and mother’s side etc.
Questions in Test of Reasoning on Family /Blood Relationship are about the relationship of a particular person with another person of the family, based on the chain of relationships between other members of that family
Family/Blood Relation Tests are an exercise to test the candidate’s ability to comprehend and come to the crux of an issue from complex, lengthy and unclear data.
‘Ram’ is the father of ‘Kusha’ but ‘Kusha’ is not his son. ‘Mala’ is the daughter of ‘Kusha’.’Shalaka’ is the spouse of ‘Ram’. ‘Gopal’ is the brother of ‘Kusha’. ‘Hari’ is the son of ‘Gopal’. ‘Meena’ is the spouse of ‘Gopal’. ‘Ganpat’ is the father of ‘Meena’. Who is the grand daughter of ‘Ram’?
‘Mala’ is the daughter of ‘Kusha’ and ‘Ram’ is the father of ‘Kusha’. So, ‘Mala’ is the granddaughter of ‘Ram’. Hence, answer is (2) Mala.
Some Common Terms
Meaning of some terms often used in questions on family relationship are given below:
a) Parent – Mother or father
b) Child – Son or daughter (even if an adult)
c) Sibling – Brother or sister (Including half brother and half sister - one parent in common)
d) Spouse – Husband or wife
Aunt, Uncle, Niece and Nephew
Most English speakers use “uncle” for any of four relationships: father’s brother, mother’s brother, father’s sister’s husband, or mother’s sister’s husband.
Again, “aunt” in English could mean father’s sister, mother’s sister, father’s brother’s wife, or mother’s brother’s wife.
Brother’s or sister’s son is called nephew. Brother’s or sister’s daughter is called niece.
Children of aunt or uncle are called cousins.
Relationships Involving the Term ‘-in-law’
Any relationship term ending with -in-law indicates that the relationship is by marriage and not by blood. In other words, -in-law will be a blood relative of the spouse.
In-law relationship terms are always written with hyphens. And the plural is formed on the part before the “-in-law”;
For example, “brothers-in-law” and not “brother-in-laws”. The only exception is the general term “in-laws”, which is always plural.
Father-in-law, Mother-in-law, Son-in-law and Daughter-in-law
Father-in-law is the father of spouse; mother-in-law is the mother of spouse. If parents get divorced and remarry, their new spouses are called stepparents, not mother-in-law and father-in-law.
The husband of daughter is son-in-law; the wife of son is daughter-in-law. If spouse has children from a previous marriage, those are called stepchildren, not sons-in-law or daughters-in-law. The person is their stepfather or stepmother, not their father-in-law or mother-in-law.
Brother-in-law and Sister-in-law
Brother-in-law” and “Sister-in-law” each have two or three meanings as follows:
a) Sister-in-law could be
i) The sister of spouse, or
ii) The wife of brother, or
iii) The wife of spouse’s brother.
b) Similarly, Brother-in-law could be
i) The brother of spouse, or
ii) The husband of sister, or
iii) The husband of spouse’s sister.
Relationships Involving the Terms ‘Grand’ and ‘Great’
The relationships of the second generation are prefixed with the word Grand.
Similarly, for a person, the first generation above him would be that of his/her parents (Father/ Mother). The next/second generation above him/her would be the parents of the parents who would be called Grand Parents/ Grand Father/ Grand Mother of that person. The next/ third generation parents would be called Great Grand Parents/ Great Grand Father/ Great Grand Mother of that person.
This also applies to the collateral relationships.
For example: Son of nephew of a person is called Grand Nephew; Brother of Grand Father is called Grand Uncle and so on.
The fourth generation relationships are called Great Great Grand. For example, Son of Great Grand Son is Great Great Grand Son.
There are two ways Martha could have a stepsister:
a) If Martha’s mother marries second time, and her new husband (Martha’s new stepfather) already has a daughter from a previous marriage, that daughter is Martha’s stepsister because one of her parents is married to one of Martha’s parents.
b) If Martha’s father marries second time, and his new wife already has a daughter, that daughter is again Martha’s stepsister.
Mother’s (or) father’s son – Brother
Mother’s (or) Father’s Daughter – Sister
Mother’s brother – Maternal Uncle
Father’s Brother – Paternal uncle
Mother’s (or) Father’s sister – Aunt
Mother’s (or) Father’s father – Grand father
Mother’s (or) Father’s mother – Grand mother
Son’s wife – Daughter in law
Daughter’s husband – Son in law
Husband’s (or) Wife’s father – Father in law
Husband’s (or) Wife’s mother – Mother in law
Husband’s (or) Wife’s brother – Brother in law
Husband’s (or) Wife’s sister – Sister in law
Sister’s husband – Brother in law
Brother’s (or) Sister’s son – Nephew
Brother’s (or) Sister’s daughter – Niece
Type of Problems
1. Single Person Blood Relations
2. Mixed Blood Relations
3. Coded Blood Relations
1. Single Person Blood Relations (SPBR)
These are Relations between two people only.
DIRECT SPBR :
Break the given sentence at is/was/as and resolve it from last point to is/was/as to get easy solution for the problem.
Carefully observe the given examples.
Ex – 1 :
Pointing to a lady Ravi said,” She is the only daughter of the father of my sister’s brother”. How is she related to Ravi?
Break the given sentence at is.
From the last, in the view of Ravi,
My sister’s brother – brother
Father of brother – father
Daughter of father – sister
So,that becomes “she is my sister”
So, answer is sister.
John introduces Mary as the daughter of the only son of my father’s wife. How is Mary related to john?
Break the given sentence at as.
Resolving from the last , In the view of john,
My father’s wife – mother
Only son of mother – himself i.e. john
Daughter of john– daughter.
So, answer is daughter.
NOTE : Sometimes they might ask like how is john related to Mary. In that case answer is father. So, don’t make answers without clear understanding in this type of problems.
Break the given sentence at is/was/as.
Resolve the sentence from last upto is/was/as.
And also resolve the sentence from the first upto is /was/as.
Then you will get easy solution. Observe the below examples.
Pointing to a man in the photograph, a Woman says,” His mother’s only daughter is my mother”. How is man related to woman?
Break the sentence at is.
From the last, up to is : my mother – Woman’s mother
From the first, up to is : his mother’s only daughter – his sister
His sister = woman’s mother.
So, the answer is Mother’s brother i.e. Uncle.
If question asks like how is woman related to that man? Then answer is sister’s daughter i.e. niece.
Introducing Suresh, Kalpana said,” His brother’s father is the only son of my grandfather”. How is Kalpana related to Suresh?
Break the sentence at is.
From the last up to is : The only son of my grandfather – father
From the first up to is : his brother’s father – father
Suresh’s father = kalpana’s father
So, they are brother & sister.
Answer is sister.
NOTE : Like in the above type of problems From either ends if it is like
Father = Father Uncle= Uncle
Mother = Mother Aunt = Aunt
Then they both may be brothers / sisters / bother & sister depending upon their sex.
2. Mixed Blood Relations
In this, mutual blood relations depending on more than two persons mentioned. These type of problems can be solved with the help of diagrams.
Follow these symbols in the diagram to avoid confusion.
+ Male candidate
– Female candidate
——- Same generation i.e.brother –brother (or) sister-sister (or) sister to brother
_______ Different generations i.e. father-son (or) mother-son (or) father – daughter (or) Mother – daughter
The following list of generation might be helpful to you.
First generation : Grand father, Grand mother
Second generation : Father, Mother, Uncle, Aunt.
Third generation : Self, Sister, Brother, Sister in law, Brother in law
Fourth generation : Son, Daughter, Nephew, Niece.
Better to use the same generation in one horizontal row in the diagrams.
EX – 5 :
A and B are brothers and C and D are sisters. A’s son is D’s brother. How is B related to C?
By using above notations we can draw the below diagram. A,B are taken ‘+’ and C ,D
are taken as ‘-’. It seems that A,B belongs to one generation and C,D belongs to another generation.
So, A,B are taken in one horizontal row and C,D are taken in other horizontal line.
It says that A is C’s father. Father’s brother is uncle. So, answer is uncle.
Sometimes they might ask paragraph questions in blood relations type problems.
EX – 6 :
Read the information carefully and answer the question given below it.
1. A family consists of 6 members P, Q , R, X, Y, Z.
2. Q is the son of R but R is not mother of Q.
3. P and R are married couple.
4. Y is the brother of R, X is the daughter of P.
5. Z is the brother of P.
1. Who is the brother in law of R?
2. How many female members are there in the family?
3. How is Q related to X?
4. How is Y related to P?
Draw the diagram with given instructions below.
1. Q is son of R. draw this one with thick line in different horizontal rows. Both are male so take as’+’.
2. Use <=> between P and R in same row, because they are couple.
3. Add Y to R with dotted line in same row.
4. Add X to P with thick line downwards to different row. Here, X is ‘–‘.
5. Add Z to P and take Z as ‘+’.
6. So, Q and X are brother & sister.
Brother in law means wife’s brother i.e. Z
Two female members are there with ‘-‘ symbols i.e. P and X.
Q is brother of X.
Y is husband’s brother to P. i.e. brother in law.
Method to solve
1. Apply the question to yourself
This is the best way to solve blood relation questions. Here, you try and relate every statement to yourself. The starting name of the statement could be assumed as your name or you. Let us apply this technique to solve a question -
She is Mohit’s brother’s mother’s sister
Here Assume that Mohit = you
Your brothers mother = your mother
Your Mothers sister = Maternal Aunt
Answer = Maternal aunt
This trick is beneficial for short questions but get confusing for long questions.
2. Break the question into very small parts
When the statement is very long, it can get confusing. So break down every statement in the question into sub statements and solve the question. For Example:
He is Pratibha’s brother’s aunt’s husband’s son
Suppose you are Pratibha
Brothers aunt = your aunt
Your aunt’s husband= your uncle
Your uncle’s son = your cousin
Answer = cousin
3. Do not assume the gender
Do not assume the gender of any person in the question just based on the names given in the question. For example:
Hitesh is brother of Mithilesh. Mithilesh is brother of Suresh. How is Suresh related to Hitesh?
In this by using the explanation above:
Hitesh(m) ➜ Mithilesh(m) ➜Suresh(x)
In the given question Suresh’s gender is not given. Hence, Suresh can be brother or sister of Hitesh. Please take into consideration that gender of person can’t be decided based on the name of the person. The given information should significantly support the gender of the person.
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4. Draw clear diagrams as you solve
An easy trick to solve such questions with 100% accuracy is to draw a family try where people of the same generation are placed at the same level and the entire diagram is in the form of a hierarchy.
Coded Blood Relations Question:
In this category of questions, relations depicted by codes and symbols, for example, +, - , /, *. We must analyze the required relation based on the code given.
If A + B means A is husband of B
A / B means A is sister of B
A * B means A is the son of B.
How is F related to P in F*B+C/P ?
Solution: Start solving from left to right or right to left. We have solved this from right to left.
Clearly mention the gender of each person.
Answer: F is the nephew of P.
However P might be aunt or uncle of F. We cannot state anything for sure.
Important points to remember:
Concentrate on points which give maximum definite information.
Read the questions carefully and try identifying the persons between whom relationship is to be established. Possibly put yourself in given character so that it becomes easy for you to understand.
Whilst concluding the relationship between two people be careful about the gender of the person being talked about as it is possible to commit mistake by assuming the gender of the person which is not given in the data or which can’t be extracted from the data/information given.
Some of the unsolved questions for practice:
Question: M, N, P, Q, R, S, T and U are eight family members. Three couples are there in the family. They along with their children live in three different cities, viz Chandigarh, Ranchi and Delhi, but not necessarily in the same order. Q is mother of M and R. M is father of S and uncle of T. The one who is married with U lives in Ranchi. U is the only sister-in-law of N, who is daughter-in-law of P. S neither lives in Chandigarh nor with her aunt U.
Who among the following is husband of Q?
4) Can't be determined
5) None of these
Question: How is Sulekha related to Nandini?
I. Sulekha's husband is the only son of Nandini's mother.
II. Sulekha's brother and Nandini's husband are cousins.
A. I alone is sufficient while II alone is not sufficient
B. II alone is sufficient while I alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II is sufficient
D. Neither I nor II is sufficient
E. Both I and II are sufficient