ACTIVE /PASSIVE RULES
Definition – voice refers to the form of the verb that indicates whether the doer of an action is the subject or object in a sentence.
John (subject, doer or agent of the action) ate an apple (object, doer or agent of the action)
There are two type of voice-
- Active voice
- Passive voice
Active voice – In active voice a sentence begins with a subject (They, The teacher).
Example – They will do the work.
Passive voice – In passive voice a sentence begins with an object (The work) .
Example – The work will be done by them.
Formation of passive voice
1) The object in the active becomes the subject in the passive.
2) The subject of the active is expressed as by+ agent.
3) The active verb becomes be+ past participle (3rd form of the verb)
4) To be forms (is, am, are, was, were, be, been, being) are used.
How to make a Passive Voice
|She likes butter.||Butter is liked by her.|
|I like apples.||Apples are liked by me.|
is/ am/ are+ V ing form
Is/ am/ are + being + V3rd
|He is not sweeping the floor.||The floor is not being swept by him.|
|They were carrying the injured player off the field.||The injured player was being carried off the field.|
Has/ have + V3rd
Has/ have been + V3rd
|The have played cricket.||Cricket has been played by them.|
|People have seen wolves in the streets.||Wolves have been seen in the streets.|
Was/ were + V3rd
|The teacher taught me to speak English.||I was taught to speak English by the teacher.|
|They killed a terrorist yesterday.||A terrorist was killed by them yesterday.|
Was/were +V ing form
Was/ were +being +V3rd
|The peon was ringing the bell.||The bell was being rung by the peon.|
|They were playing cricket.||Cricket was being played by them.|
Had + V3rd
Had +been + V3rd
|He had stolen my toys.||My toys had been stolen by him.|
|She had eaten fruits.||Fruits had been eaten by her.|
Will/ shall + V1st
Will/ shall +be+ V3rd
|People will help him.||He will be helped.|
|He will like books.||Book will be liked by him.|
Will/shall+ have+ V3rd
Will/ shall + have + been + V3rd
|She will have written an application.||An application have been written by her.|
|He will have invited me.||I shall have been invited by him.|
Modal (can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought to, used to) + V1st
Modal +be + V3rd
|He may attend the class.||The class may be attended by him.|
|The girl would write a book.||A book would be written by the girl.|
Modal + have + V3rd
Modal + have +been +V3rd
|We ought to have loved our parents.||Our parents ought to have been loved.|
|I should have helped him.||He should have been helped.|
|11.||Ditransitive (verb with two object)|
|I gave him a book.||A book is given to him by me.|
He is given a book by me.
|The manager will give you a ticket.||A ticket will be given to you by the manager.|
You will be given a ticket by the manager.
|12.||With object compliment|
|They made him their king.||He was made their king.|
|They named her Jessica.||She was named Jessica.|
|13.||Static verbs- verbs that shows state of mind or feeling, not the action|
Subject+ verb+ object prepositions other than by
|These people know him well.||He is well known to these people.|
|The book has greatly interested me.||I have been greatly interested in the book.|
|14.||Infinitive simple (to+V1st ) is/am/are/was/were+ infinitive||(to+be+V3rd)|
|I was to help him.||He was to be helped.|
|We are to help him.||He is to be helped.|
|15.||Bare infinitive||Full infinitive|
|They made me laugh.||I was made to laugh.|
|We saw the camel cross the road.||The camel was seen to cross the road.|
|But let does not take a full infinitive even in the passive voice|
|We let him go.||He was let go.|
|16.||Verb+ object+ bare infinitive||Be+ V3rd+full infinitive|
|I saw her sing a song.||She was seen to sing a song.|
|I found him cross the road.||He was found to cross the road.|
|17.||There is/are etc. + subject+ infinitive||There is/are etc.+ subject+ to+ be+ V3rd|
|There is nothing to gain.|
|There is nothing to be gained.|
|There is no money to waste.||There is no money to be wasted.|
|18.||It is time + infinitive||It is time+ for+ S(receiver)+ to+ be+ V3rd|
|It is time to learn French.||It is time for French to be learnt.|
|It is now time to play cricket.||It is now time for cricket to be played.|
|19.||Imperative : order/command||Let+ object+ be+ V3rd|
|Close all the gates at once.||Let all the gates be closed at once.|
|Give the order to open fire.||Let the order to open fire be given.|
|20.||Imperative: advice||Should/must+ be+ V3rd|
|Take medicine on time.||Medicine should be taken on time.|
|Love your country.||Your country should be loved.|
|Imperative request(with please/kindly)|
|Please give me some more time.||You are requested to give me some more time.|
I may please be given some more time.
Some more time may please be given to me.
|Kindly grant me a week’s leave.|
|You are requested to grant me a week’s leave.|
I may kindly be granted a week’s leave.
A week’s leave may kindly be granted to me.
Let+ indirect object+ V1st+ direct object
|Let+ direct object+ be+ V3rd+ by+ indirect object|
|Let her sing a song.||Let a song be sung by her.|
|Let me discuss the matter.||Let the matter be discussed.|